What is CYANOKIT?
How long has CYANOKIT been available?
How is CYANOKIT dosed and administered?
The initial dose of CYANOKIT for adults is 5 g. It is administered by IV infusion over 15 minutes. Depending upon the severity of the poisoning and the clinical response, a second dose of 5 g may be administered by IV infusion up to a total dose of 10 g. The rate of infusion for a potential second dose may range from 15 minutes (for patients in extremis) to 2 hours, as clinically indicated. Learn more about CYANOKIT preparation and administration.
What is the mechanism of action of CYANOKIT?
How is CYANOKIT packaged?
Cyanokit (hydroxocobalamin for injection) 5 g for intravenous infusion contains one colorless 250 mL glass vial, containing 5 g dark red lyophilized hydroxocobalamin, pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, one transfer spike, one intravenous administration set, one quick-use reference guide, and one package insert. Diluent is not included.1
What are the most common adverse reactions with CYANOKIT?
The most common adverse reactions (>5%) included transient chromaturia, erythema, oxalate crystals in urine, rash (predominantly acneiform), increased blood pressure, nausea, headache, decreased lymphocyte percentage, and injection site reactions.1
When would a patient be administered CYANOKIT?
CYANOKIT can be given in the field by trained emergency responders or in the hospital under direction of a healthcare professional.9 CYANOKIT is indicated for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, CYANOKIT should be administered without delay.1
Can CYANOKIT be given to pregnant patients?
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CYANOKIT in pregnant women. CYANOKIT should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Because cyanide readily crosses the placenta, maternal cyanide poisoning results in fetal cyanide poisoning. Timely treatment of the pregnant mother may be lifesaving for both mother and fetus.1
Have the safety and effectiveness of CYANOKIT been established in pediatric patients?
What are the potential sources of cyanide poisoning?
Fire smoke—cyanide can be released by virtually any material containing carbon and nitrogen when burned under high temperature and low oxygen conditions.11 It is frequently found in the smoke of closed-space fires.2 Learn more about a toxin in closed-space fire smoke.
Industrial exposure—cyanide is also widely used in many industries primarily as an intermediary in industrial processes. The frequent use of cyanide by industry increases the potential for accidental exposure.12
Terrorist attack—because cyanide is readily available and does not require special skills for effective deployment, it has the potential for use as a terrorist weapon.13
What are the potential effects of cyanide poisoning?
Cyanide is an extremely toxic poison. In the absence of rapid and adequate treatment, exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration.1
Cyanide poisoning may also cause central nervous system side effects including intellectual impairment, parkinsonism, and personality changes.7
How can a cyanide poisoning diagnosis quickly be confirmed?